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Ancient history and settlement.

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[5] The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. China’s last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People’s Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949).



Ancient history and settlement.

Located in East Asia, on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has a land area of about 9.6 million sq km, and is the third largest country in the world, next only to Russia and Canada.

From north to south, the territory of China measures some 5,500 km, stretching from the center of the Heilongjiang River north of the town of Mohe to the Zengmu Reef at the southernmost tip pf the Nansha Islands.


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