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Ancient history and settlement.

Farming was introduced into the Netherlands about 4,500 BC. About 750 BC the inhabitants of the Netherlands learned to use iron.

In the 1st century BC the Romans conquered Belgium and the southern Netherlands. Then in the late 4th century the Romans withdrew from the Netherlands as their Empire crumbled.

Afterwards the Netherlands was left to Germanic peoples, Franks, Saxons and Frisians. However when Charlemagne died in 814 his empire was divided into three parts, roughly modern France, Germany and the region between At first the Netherlands was part of the Middle Empire.


Ancient history and settlement.

The Netherlands is a very flat country with almost 25% of its land at, or below sea level.

Low rolling hills cover some of the central area, and in the far south, the land rises into the foothills of the Ardennes Mountains. Subsequently the country needed a major change, and so began the Delta Project.

The plan (project) was to construct a large series of outer sea-dikes, and inner canal and river dikes to protect this fragile land from disastrous flooding brought on by the constant pressures applied to it by the North Sea.