Ancient history and settlement.
Nepal is a country of ancient civilization which can be traced thousand of years before the birth of Christ (B.C). However, scientifically reliable documents that are available now date back only to the 5th Century AD when the Lichhavis ruled over the country. We have to be content with various Legends about the earlier periods until more authentic documents are found. Legends say that the very first dynasty to rule the Kathmandu valley was Gopala dynasty. Then ruled by Kiratas. After Kiratas, then came rulers of Lichhavis dynasty who improved the economy and making great contributions for the development f the art of building, temples, images and places. After Lichhavis period, another important era of Nepalese history is the Malla dynasty ruled around 13th century AD. Innumerable temples, palaces, idols and carving that are preserved in the valley, speak of the excellence in art and architecture during that period. In this sense Nepal has a long and a glorious history. By 1767 AD, the Great King Prithivi Narayan Shah of Shah Dynasty conquered various warring principalities and laid the foundation of modern Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, the campaign of the unification was given continuity by his younger son Bahadur Shah and was launched once again by the First Prime Minister of Nepal Bhimsen Thapa. However the expansion came to a halt when Nepal came into conflict with British India Company and signed the treaty of Sugauli which lost the most important territories of Nepal. Another crucial chapter of the history began the fall of Rana Regime in February 1951, after a popular revolution Nepal saw the dawn of democracy. A democratic revolt of 1990 has reinstated the Multi-party democratic system since April 1990. A people movement of 2005 had removed the Shah Dynasty of constitutional monarchy. Nepal has been declared as Federal Democratic Republic by the First Constitutional Assembly on 28th May 2008.
Ancient history and settlement.
Nepal is a landlocked country lies between 800 4′ and 800 12′ east longitude and 260 22′ and 300 4′ north latitude. The total area comprises of 147,181 sq. km, its border touches Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north and India in the east, south and west. The country is almost like rectangular with average 885 km east-west length and average width of 193 km north-south. The country can be tentatively divided into three geographical regions running east to west. They are:
- The Himalayan Region
- The Mountain Region
- The Terai Region
THE HIMALAYAN REGION
This region covers the mountain range whose altitude is 3,000 meters to 8,848 meters above the sea level. With spare human habitation, most of the areas have a wild landscape, undisturbed tranquility of the nature rules over the land. Along with Mt. Everest, the region includes eight of the 14 peaks of the world which exceed the altitude of 8,000 meters and many more mountains. The Himalayan region also divided into 3 regions:
- Greater Himalaya
- Boarder Himalaya / Trans Himalaya
- Inner Himalaya / High Mountain Valley / Bhot
THE MOUNTAIN REGION
Mountain region covers the areas whose altitude is 600 meters to 3,000 meters above the sea-level and accounts for nearly 64 percent of total land area of the country. Along with the Mahabharat and Churia Mountain ranges, this region has many longitudinal fertile valleys of the principal rivers. Kathmandu valley is also situated in this very region. Likewise, the Himalayan regions are divided into 3 regions, Mountain region also divided into 3 regions:-
- The Midland Range (Valley/Tars/Beshi)
- Mahabharat Range
- Churia Range
THE TERAI REGION
This region form a low flat land belt and includes the most fertile land and dense forest areas of the Country. It accounts 17 percent of the total land of the country. It has the width of 26 to 32 kilometers and its altitude does not exceed 305 meters above the sea level. This region is also divided into 3 regions:
- Southern Terai Region
- Bhabar Pradesh Region
- Inner Terai Region